Health Science Education

Pathogens and Disease CPU Objectives

Activity 1

1-1. Test your pre-existing knowledge of the course material.
1-2. Define pathogens.
1-3. Investigate the evolution of germ theory.
1-4. Discover several important figures in the development of germ theory.
1-5. Explore careers related to pathogens and disease.
1-6. Select two careers you would like to shadow and discuss the possibility with the instructor.
1-7. Describe the importance of understanding germ theory to the population at large and give a modern day example of what would happen in a population that did not understand germ theory.

Activity 2

2-1. Define terms related to epidemiology.
2-2. Review the immune system.
2-3. Determine the initial steps of an epidemic investigation.
2-4. Conduct research on E. coli bacteria in preparation for a simulated epidemic.
2-5. Discuss how civil administrators can address problems like violated water mains and how this sort of problem can be prevented in the first place.

Activity 3

3-1. Review basic microbiology.
3-2. Collect samples of untreated water.
3-3. Prepare slides for examination.
3-4. Use the microscope to examine microbes in the untreated water samples.
3-5. Create a report describing the type and number of microbes in each water sample and contrasting the samples.
3-6. Determine whether or not an actual outbreak is occurring in the epidemic scenario by creating a bar graph to track cases.
3-7. Discuss how solar stills are an improvement over other forms of relief that rely on the ongoing intervention of aid agencies and come up with another example of how a public health problem can be addressed by supplying tools to the community at risk rather than instituting ongoing aid programs run by outside institutions.

Activity 4

4-1. Watch several movies pertaining to bacteria.
4-2. Culture bacteria and fungi from three different areas of your classroom or school.
4-3. Review patient questionnaires for information pertinent to the simulated E. coli outbreak.
4-4. Analyze the available data and determine which patients require further testing or other follow-up in the simulated outbreak scenario.
4-5. Discuss other ways antibiotics are used unnecessarily and whether you believe the overuse of antibiotics is due more to the misconception that all bacteria are bad or to a misunderstanding about how antibiotics work.

Activity 5

5-1. Review the microbes which ordinarily live on human skin.
5-2. Explore fungi and mycoses.
5-3. Watch a movie about mold.
5-4. Examine the bacterial and fungal cultures for growth.
5-5. Analyze interviews of the four initial E. coli patients in the simulated E. coli outbreak.
5-6. Discuss the microbe culture you began during the last activity and explain which of your habitats you expect to produce the most bacteria and which you expect to produce the most fungi.

Activity 6

6-1. Examine the common cold and determine why a cure for the common cold is unlikely.
6-2. Explore both human viruses and bacteriophages.
6-3. Discover several of the diseases for which vaccinations are available.
6-4. Examine the bacterial and fungal cultures for growth.
6-5. Create a case definition for use in the simulated E. coli outbreak.
6-6. Consider the techniques to use viruses to cure genetic disease and combat bacteria and explain which of these techniques you think is most promising and why.

Activity 7

7-1. Discover the history of the AIDS epidemic both in the United States and worldwide.
7-2. Observe presentations on the causes, prevention, and effects of HIV/AIDS.
7-3. Examine AIDS as an example of immunodeficiency.
7-4. Consider the effects of AIDS on other countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
7-5. Examine the bacterial and fungal cultures for growth.
7-6. Determine appropriate surveillance methods for tracking the simulated E. coli epidemic and when each is appropriate to use.
7-7. Create a line listing for the information currently available in the simulated E. coli epidemic.
7-8. Write a letter for use in passive surveillance of the simulated E. coli epidemic.
7-9. Consider the AIDS epidemic in the United States and the AIDS epidemic in Africa and discuss what factors contribute to the different character of these epidemics.

Activity 8

8-1. Discover some of the instances in which diseases have made a substantial (and direct) impact on history.
8-2. Discover the lifecycle of malaria.
8-3. Watch movies about diseases caused by protists.
8-4. Determine how descriptive epidemiology is used in an outbreak.
8-5. Create an epidemic curve for the simulated E. coli epidemic.
8-6. Create a spot map for the simulated E. coli epidemic.
8-7. Create a personal characteristics summary for the patients involved in the simulated E. coli epidemic.
8-8. Write about the ethical dilemma presented by AIDS vaccine trials.

Activity 9

9-1. Examine the general shape, color, and structure of the bacterial colonies.
9-2. Stain slides of the bacteria grown in the cultures.
9-3. Examine the bacterial slides using the microscope.
9-4. Classify the bacteria according to shape and arrangement.
9-5. Complete the line listing for the simulated E. coli epidemic.
9-6. Create a hypothesis for the origin of the simulated E. coli epidemic.
9-7. Discuss your feelings about the Tuskegee experiment and relate the Tuskegee experiment to the current concern about how to ensure that AIDS vaccine testing does not unfairly exploit high-risk groups.

Activity 10

10-1. Examine the general shape, color, and structure of the fungal colonies.
10-2. Create slides of the fungi grown in the cultures.
10-3. Examine the fungal slides using the microscope.
10-4. Attempt to identify the fungi by appearance.
10-5. Determine how analytic epidemiology is used in an epidemic scenario. 10-6. Discover when a cohort study is employed and when a case-control study is employed.
10-7. Determine how to calculate attack rates for exposed and unexposed individuals in a cohort study.
10-8. Determine how to calculate relative risk for a given exposure in a case-control study.
10-9. Analyze data obtained for cohort and case-control studies conducted for the simulated E. coli epidemic to determine attack rates and relative risk.
10-10. Discuss the techniques that can be employed to prevent the exploitation of research subjects.

Activity 11

11-1. Examine the CDC Category A disease agents.
11-2. Determine the risks associated with bioweapons.
11-3. Examine the simulated epidemic hypothesis in light of all available evidence and make any necessary corrections.
11-4. Analyze additional interviews for information regarding the simulated epidemic.
11-5. Discuss how to address the dangers posed by biological weapons in the hands of private parties.

Activity 12

12-1. Use the information you have gathered to develop a plan to contain and control the simulated E. coli epidemic.
12-2. Create either a paper or a presentation detailing your contain and control plan.
12-3. Discuss whether or not the remaining Hansen's disease patients, who were forced to live at a facility in Carville, LA, should have been permitted to stay once it was decided the facility would be converted for other uses.

Activity 13

13-1. You will participate in a career shadowing activity the instructor has arranged. OR
13-2. You will create a presentation of findings in the simulated E. coli outbreak.
13-3. Write about how you would begin to address the transmission of disease within the population of a remote village that has little to no knowledge of germ theory.

Activity 14

14-1. You will participate in a career shadowing activity the instructor has arranged. OR
14-2. You will create a paper of findings in the simulated E. coli epidemic.
14-3. Offer examples of simple and direct methods to improve health in remote areas.

Activity 15

15-1. Select appropriate vocabulary terms based on the definitions provided.
15-2. Test your comprehension of concepts gained during this course.
15-3. State and explain your opinion of the Pathogens and Disease CPU.